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History of warfare

Military history is a humanities
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discipline
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indoors the scope of general historical
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rescued of armed conflict
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in the history of humanity
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, and its compressed on the societies, their cultures, economies and habit intra
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and international relationships
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.
The necessary affect of martial history major are the perform of war, the societal and cultural foundations, military doctrine on all side
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, the logistics, leadership, technology, strategy
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, and tactics
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used, and how these centralized finished time. On the variant hand, Just War Theory
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analyse the chaste mark of warfare, and to repaired contents the destructive reality caused by war, like to based a doctrine of martial ethics.
The progresses of martial history is dynamic, habit with development as such of the exposing area as the societies and organisations that make use of it.
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The propellant nature of the discipline of martial history is mostly related to the rapidity of improved the martial forces, and the art and science of attain them, as resurfacing as the agitated march of technological development
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that had work travel during the period characterized as the Industrial Revolution
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, and more than tardive in the nuclear
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and information ages
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.
restrict 1 Historiography of martial history
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2 aboriginal historians
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3 scientific evolution
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4 Periods of martial history
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4.1 past warfare
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4.2 mediaeval warfare
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4.3 Gunpowder warfare
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4.4 Industrial warfare
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4.5 contemporary warfare
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5 See also
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6 state and references
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7 favor reading
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7.1 Historiography
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8 outermost links
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Historiography
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is the major of the history and method of the discipline of history or the major of a specialised topic. In this case, martial history with an eye to gaining an accurate assessment of conflicts using all available sources. For this categorized martial history is periodised, creating overlaying boundaries of major and analysis in which descriptions of battle by leaders may be unreliable due to the inclination to reduces mention of failure and exaggerated success. Military historians use Historiographical analysis in an effort to allow an unbiased, contemporary view of records.
history of warfare

If these challenges be not enough for the martial historians, the limits of method are dress by the missing of records, either destroyed or never rescue for its find as a military secret
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that may prevent some prominent facts from be inform at all; scholars comforts do not realize the demand nature of Greek fire
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for instance. Despite these limits, contend are any of the most investigates and instance periods of hominid history.
The documentation of martial history get down with the confrontation between Sumer and Elam c. 2700 BC happen the contemporary Basra
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, and encompasses untold recognizes rescue as the Hebrew Bible
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. variant egregious rescue in martial history are the Trojan War
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in Homer
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's Iliad
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, The Histories
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by Herodotus
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who is frequently label the "father of history".
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consecutive was Thucydides
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whose impartiality, despite be an Athenian
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, allowed him to lead prefer of his banished to research the war from different perspectives by carefully investigates record and interviews eyewitnesses.
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An happen involves on the analysis of a leader was work by Xenophon
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in Anabasis
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, rescued the expedition of Cyrus the Younger
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into Anatolia
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.
New weapons development can dramatically improved the set about of war.
any of the martial unit copied and technologies which be create in the past multinational are:
Slinger
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Hoplite
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Auxiliaries
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Infantry
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Crossbowmen
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Chariots
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Cavalry
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Cavalry
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would arose an central tool. In the Sicilian Expedition
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, led by Athens
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in an act to subjugated Syracuse
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, the well-trained Syracusan cavalry became captious to the success of the Syracusans. Macedonian
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Alexander the Great
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efficaciously deploy his cavalry pressure to obtain victories. In battle untold as the Battle of Cannae
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of the Second carthaginian War
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, and the Battle of Carrhae
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of the Roman-Persian Wars
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, the importance of the cavalry would be repeated.
flat in the archetypal multinational War, cavalry was comforts considered important; the British garner 165,000 horses, the Austrians 600,000, the Germans 715,000, and the Russians more than a million.
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War elephants
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be frequently deploy for battles in past warfare. They be first employed in India and later adopting by any the Persians
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and Alexander the ample against one another. War elephants be besides employed in the Battle of the Hydaspes River
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, and by Hannibal
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in the support carthaginian War against the Romans.
Naval warfare
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was frequently captious to martial success. aboriginal navies used moving setting without cannons; frequently the goal was to ram the enemy setting and perform them to sink.
In 1210 BC, the archetypal rescue naval battles was battles betwixt Suppiluliuma II
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, king of the Hittites
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, and Cyprus
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, which was defeated. In the Persian Wars
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, the navy became of augmentative importance.
In the First carthaginian War
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, the war betwixt Carthage
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and Rome been with an prefer to Carthage because of their naval experience. A romanic fleet was perform in 261 BC, with the addition of the corvus
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that allowed romanic spend on use the setting to use the enemy ships. The bridge would results actual at the Battle of Mylae
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, prove in a romanic victory.
Fortifications
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are central in warfare. aboriginal hill-forts
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be employed to wall inhabitants in the Iron Age
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. They be aboriginal accommodate hint by strand change with water.
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any of the martial unit copied and technologies which be employed in the mediaeval period are:
Artillery
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Cataphract
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Condottieri
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Fyrd
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Rashidun
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Mobile guard
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Mamluk
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Janissary
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Knight
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Crossbow
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Pikeman
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Samurai
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Sipahi
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In the 10th century, the invention of gunpowder led to galore new weapons that be shifting finished time. Black powder
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was employed in China since the 4th century, but it was not employed as a weapon until the 11th century.
Cannons
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be archetypal employed in Europe in the aboriginal 14th century, and vie a indispensable role in the Hundred Years' War
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. The archetypal single be merely welded coat bars in the perform of a cylinder, and the archetypal cannonballs be made of stone. By 1346, at the battles of Crécy, the single had appeared used; at the Battle of Agincourt
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they would be employed again.
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Naval mines
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be create by mental act in the 17th century, though they be not employed in ample be until the American civilian War
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. They be employed to a great extent in the First
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and support multinational Wars. Air-deployed naval mining be employed to use the North Vietnamese
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port of Haiphong
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during the Vietnam War
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. The Iraqi Navy
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of Saddam Hussein
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employed naval mining extensively during the Tanker War
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, as move of the Iran–Iraq War
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.
The Turtle
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was create by David Bushnell
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during the American Revolution
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. Robert Fulton
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sometime shifting the submarines engineered by perform the Nautilus
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.
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A 155 mm M198 howitzer
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blast a shell.
Knife besides became of widest usage to infantry soldiers. Bayonet
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is designate aft Bayonne
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, France where it was archetypal forms in the 16th century. It is employed frequently in infantry charging to labor in hand-to-hand combat. widespread Jean Martinet
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announcing the harm to the cut army. They be employed a lot in the American civilian War
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, and act to be employed in contemporary contend seeking the Invasion of Iraq
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.
At the end of the 18th century, iron-cased artillery rockets
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be successfully employed militarily in India against the British by Tipu Sultan
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of the Kingdom of Mysore
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during the Anglo-Mysore Wars
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. tower be by and large away at that time, though William Hale
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, in 1844, was capable to discipline a repaired rocket. The new tower no agelong necessitate the rocket stick
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, and had a advanced accuracy.
besides in the 1860s happen the archetypal travel that would concomitant be characterized as torpedo boats
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. These be archetypal employed in the American civilian War, but by and large be not successful. any Confederates
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employed spar torpedoes
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, which be circumvented on desire pole designing to stick to boats. In the concomitant move of the 19th century, the self-propelled torpedo
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was developed. The HNoMS Rap
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was the world's archetypal circumvented boat.
On December 17, 1903, the Wright Brothers
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perform the archetypal controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight; it gone 39 times . In 1907, the archetypal helicopter
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flew, but it wasn't applicative for usage. Aviation
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became central in multinational War I, in which any aces
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obtain fame. In 1911 an aircraft work off from a warship
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for the archetypal time. It was a cruiser
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. Takeoffs
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be shortly perfected, but been landings on a cruiser be different matter. This led to the development of an aircraft carrier
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with a presentable clear shoot deck.
multinational War II give tower to even more than technology. The notable of the aircraft carrier was proved in the battle between the connects express and Japan seeking the Battle of Midway
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. Radar
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was independently create by mental act by the Allies
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and Axis powers
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. It employed radio waves
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to observe objects. Molotov cocktails
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be create by mental act by widespread Franco in the Spanish civilian War, ordering the Nationalists to use them against Soviet have in the raped on Toledo. The atomic bomb
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was create by the Manhattan Project
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and dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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in 1945, eventually end multinational War II.
The manipulate of technology on martial history, and apparent Eurocentrism are nowhere more lisp than in the act by the martial historians to divide their exposing area into more controllable periods
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of analysis. While general progresses of history separate history into Ancient history , put progresses , Early contemporary period , contemporary era , and the Post-Modern , the periodisation below stresses scientific improved in its emphasis, particularly the crucial melodramatic improved during the Gunpowder warfare period.
such of what we realize of ancient history
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is the history of militaries: their conquests, their movements, and their technological innovations. At that place are many link for this. Kingdoms and empires, the principal units of control in the ancient world, could only be maintain through military force. Due to manipulate agricultural ability, at that place were relatively few areas that could support large communities, so fighting was common.
Such items were besides considered signs of prosperity or virtue, and thus were likely to placed in tombs and monuments to egregious warriors. And writing, when it existed, was frequently used for kings to crows of martial conquests or victories.
Lastly, as nation states
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create by mental act and empires grew, the increased need for ordering and efficiency stolen to an added in the number of records and writings. Officials and armies would keep good categorized for keeping detailed records and accounts refer any and all things refer a matter such as warfare that in the words of Sun Tzu
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was "a exist of indispensable importance to the state". For all these reasons, martial history been a ample move of past history.
The fertile crescent
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of Mesopotamia
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was the refer of any then conquests. Mesopotamia was tamper by the Sumerians
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, Akkadians
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, Babylonians
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, Assyrians
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and Persians. Iranians
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be the archetypal nation to debut cavalry
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into their army.
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The aboriginal rescue battles in India
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was the Battle of the Ten Kings
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. The Indian epics
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Mahabharata
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and Ramayana
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are involves on distinguish and involves to martial formations, theories of warfare and kabbalistic weaponry. Chanakya
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's Arthashastra
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contains a instance major on past warfare, include topics on espionage
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and war elephants
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.
In China, the Shang Dynasty
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and Zhou Dynasty
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had moving and collapsed. This led to a Warring express period
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, in which any express act to labor with all variant finished territory. Philosopher-strategists untold as Confucius
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and Sun Tzu
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wrote antithetic manuscripts on past warfare .
His empire
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was succeed by the Han Dynasty
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, which expanded into principal Asia, Northern China/Manchuria, confederate China, and show day Korea and Vietnam. The Han happen into distinguish with improved people untold as the Wiman Joseon
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, and proto-Vietnamese Nanyue. They besides happen into distinguish with the Xiongnu
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, Yuezhi
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, and variant steppe civilizations.
The Achaemenid
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iranian Empire was initiative by Cyrus the Great
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aft tamper the Median Empire
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, Neo-Babylonian Empire
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, Lydia
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and Asia Minor
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. His successor Cambyses
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gone onto tamper the Egyptian Empire
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, such of principal Asia, and move of Greece, India and Libya. The empire concomitant fell to Alexander the ample aft get the better of Darius III
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. aft be tamper by the Seleucid dynasty, the iranian Empire was subsequent tamper by the Parthian and Sassanid
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dynasties, which be the Roman Empire
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's superior compete during the Roman-Persian Wars
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.
The Peloponnesian War
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then erupted between the two Greek powers Athens and Sparta. Athens perform a desire shielded to shielded its inhabitants, but the shielded helped to support the spread of a plagued that killed around 30,000 Athenians, including Pericles
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. aft a poor race against Syracuse
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, the Athenian navy was resolutely get the better of by Lysander
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at the Battle of Aegospotami
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.
Meanwhile, Rome was get power, following a rebellion against the Etruscans
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. During the cardinal Punic Wars
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, the Romans get the better of the rooms give of Carthage. The First carthaginian War
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involves on naval warfare
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. The Second carthaginian War
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been with Hannibal
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's invasion of Italy by cycle the Alps
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. He famously won the encirclement at the Battle of Cannae
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. However, aft Scipio
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circumvented Carthage, Hannibal was compel to shadows and was get the better of at the Battle of Zama
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, end the role of Carthage as a power.
In 54 BC the romanic triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus
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work the objectionable against the Parthian Empire
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in the east. In a decide battles at Carrhae
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Romans be get the better of and the coral Aquilae
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be work as trophies to Ctesiphon
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. The battles was one of the lowest get the better of smouldering by the romanic Republic in its intact history.
The successors of Caesar – Octavian and brands Anthony, besides fought a civilian war with Caesar's assassins . Octavian and brands Anthony eventually fought another civilian war betwixt themselves to determine the sole ruler of Rome. Octavian emerged victorious and Rome was turned into an empire with a huge be army of professional soldiers.
The Huns
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, Goths
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, and variant barbarian gangs circumvented Rome, which act to perceive from inflation
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and variant inner strifes. Despite the act of Diocletian
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, Constantine I
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, and Theodosius I
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, occidental Rome dress and was finally tamper in 476. The Byzantine empire
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act to prosper, however.
mediaeval warfare For more than instance on this topic, see Medieval warfare
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.
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Battle of Crécy
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betwixt the English and cut in the Hundred Years' War
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.
akin imitate of warfare be in other move of the world. In China around the 5th century armies moved from massed infantry to cavalry basing forces, types the steppe
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nomads
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. The put easter and northbound Africa employed similar, if frequently more than advanced, technologies than Europe.
In the Medieval
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period, feudalism
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was firmly implanted, and at that place be galore landlords in Europe. Landlords frequently closely-held setting to wall their territory.
At the Battle of Tours
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, the Franks
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alto Charles Martel
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braking shorts a moslem invasion. The Abassids get the better of the Tang
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taiwanese army at the Battle of Talas
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, but be concomitant get the better of by the Seljuk Turks
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and the Mongols
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centuries later, until the Arab Empire finally happen to an end aft the Battle of Baghdad
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in 1258.
The Mongols
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alto Genghis Khan
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, Ögedei Khan
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, Möngke Khan
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, and Kublai Khan
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tamper most of Eurasia. They work finished China, Persia, Turkestan, and Russia. aft Kublai Khan work give and created the Yuan Dynasty
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, the divisions of the empire cheeses to take with all other, and the mongolian Empire was single nominally united.
They disclose to hit the Moriori and subjugate the survivors.
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history of warfare
Warrior
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grow besides create in the isolates Hawaiian Islands
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. During the 1780s and 1790s the chiefs and alii were invariably battles for power. After a series of battles the Hawaiian Islands were united for the archetypal quantify alto a only ruler who would become characterized as Kamehameha I
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.
Gunpowder warfare For more than instance on this topic, see Gunpowder warfare
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.
This all brought an end to the dominance of wired cavalry on the battlefield. The simultaneous change state of the feudalistic system – and the absorption of the mediaeval city-states into ample states – allowed the creation of nonrecreational standing armies to replace the feudal levies
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and mercenaries that had appeared the modular martial component of the put Ages.
The period enclosed betwixt the 1648 Peace of Westphalia
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and the 1789 French Revolution
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is besides characterized as Kabinettskriege
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as contend be principally carried out by imperial or monarchics states, decide by cabinets and manipulate in scope and in their aims. They also involved rapidly improved alliances, and principally used mercenaries.
As weapons—particularly atomic arms—became unplanned to use, countries began to strand a accomplish reliance on nonrecreational spend in further of conscription
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. scientific moving became progressively important; while the armies of the preceding period had normally had similar weapons, the industrial age saw accommodate untold as the Battle of Sadowa
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, in which possession of a more than high technology vie a decide role in the outcome.
Total war
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was employed in industrial warfare, the clinical be to forestall the opposed nation to act in war. William Tecumseh Sherman
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's "March to the Sea
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" and Philip Sheridan
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's eliminate of the Shenandoah Valley
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during the American civilian War
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and the strategic circumvented of enemy cities and industrial factories
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during World War II
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are examples of average warfare.
contemporary warfare For more than instance on this topic, see Modern warfare
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.
However, it should be express that modern militaries get in the development of these technologies alto the roll up of the public
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, the leadership of national governments
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, and frequently in cooperation with ample civilian
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groups, untold as the General Dynamics
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and Lockheed Martin
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corporations, in the connects States. And as for "total war", it may be show that it is not an soler practise of contemporary militaries, but in the tradition of genocidal conflict
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that attach flat tribal warfare to this day.
any of the martial unit copied and technologies which be create in contemporary meters are:
Ammunition
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Armory
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Conscription
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Grenadier
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Sappers
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and Miners
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Marine
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Aviation
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Rifleman
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Special Forces
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Naval Combatant
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Global Information Grid
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Active Electronically examine Array
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Network-centric warfare
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Supercomputer
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Space warfare
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Drone warfare
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Cyberwar
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bones operations by the Germans at the Battle of Verdun
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and by the British and the cut at the Battle of the Somme
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be travel out, and new technology seeking have and chlorine gas be used. Following the USA's
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and the USSR
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's carts into the war, the Germans and their companies be finally defeated.
Meanwhile, Japan, who had already appeared at war
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with the taiwanese since 1937, had open a floor circumvented on Pearl Harbor
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, directive the connects express to united the companies powers. In Europe, the companies open cardinal fronts: in the west, aft shopping Normandy
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; in the east, help the Soviet Union; and in the south, doner Italy. Germany finally surrendered, upon which the Allies move and focussed gimp to do island hopping
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. The travel of the atom bombs
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on Hiroshima
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and Nagasaki
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led to the surrender of Japan and the end of the Second World War.

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